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CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA ACT, 1924      31

before the time when goods are loaded, and it must be
agreed that the carriage of goods covers all the operations
set out in Article 2.

Article 3. This sets out the responsibilities and liabilities
of the carrier —

Para. i. Before, and at the beginning of each voyage, the
carrier shall be bound to exercise his due diligence to (a)
make his ship seaworthy, (b) properly man, equip, and
supply the ship, and (c] .make all holds refrigerated and cool
chambers, and other parts 6f*4fre ship in which goods
are carried, fit ^iid safe for theirVeception, carriage and

preservation,     f     *; f : S ; ')       \

Here are the conditions thatyftave been imposed in
place of the old pcpyision of^seaworthy ship. They are
more detailed and demand more care. The carrier himself
must exercise due diligence and the failure tc^^mply with
this regulation lays uj^-Mn>£h^&R                his due

diligence, @lfiii« AtoSusiy great.

It will also be noticed that the manning and equipping of
a ship are part of the conditions. No ship is ever seaworthy
unless it is properly manned — with sufficient crew on board
for its safe navigation and control, and also a ship without
complete equipment is certainly lacking part of its essentials.

Sub-para, (c) is a reasonable condition also ; it has always
been understood — now compulsory by statute — that the
holds must be in good condition for the reception of cargo.
Giving an example of this, a vessel carrying bones, cargoes
which are thankfully few, is not in a fit condition for the
reception of other cargo until the holds have been com-
pletely scoured out. Greater detail on this point is needless.

Another example of an unseaworthy ship, which however
is outside the scope of the Act, is a vessel carrying live
stock with foot and mouth disease, not being considered
seaworthy for the carriage of further live stock until such a
time as the vessel has been completely fumigated and the
scourge removed.

Para. 2 again recites under the heading of responsibili-
ties, the duties mentioned in Article 2, viz. "The carrier